MINUS SPACE’s chronology includes major events, exhibitions, and writings regarding the development of reductive art on the international level. 

To contribute information, please email MINUS SPACE.


year europe south america north america australia / asia / africa
1960 Max Bill organizes the retrospective exhibition "Concrete Art: Fifty Years of Development" at Helmhaus, Zurich, Switzerland

Victor Pasmore represents England at the 30th Venice Biennale; Retrospective exhibition travels throughout Europe

Auguste Herbin dies on January 30-31 in Paris, France

Walter Determann dies on July 27 in Weimar

Rudolf Franz Hartogh dies on January 20 in Quelkhorn

Vilmos Huszár dies on September 8 in Hierden, The Netherlands

Wolfgang Berkowski is born in Salzkotten, Germany

Dirk Löbbert is born in Wattenscheid, Germany

Christoph Dahlhausen is born in Bonn, Germany
Brazilian poet Ferreira Gullar puts forth the precepts of Neo-Concrete art in his theory of the “non-object” published in 1960

Hélio Oiticica joins the Neo-Concrete movement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Participates in exhibition "Konkrete Kunst" organized by Max Bill in Zurich; Helio Oiticica's essay "Colour, Time and Structure" is published in Jornal do Brasil; Begins experiments that involved participation of the spectator

The two factions of the group, Grupo Madí, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, disband

Julio Grinblatt is born in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Gego moves to New York City; Participates in the exhibition "Annual Section Eleven" at Betty Parsons Gallery and "Recent Sculpture" along Alexander Calder, Louise Nevelson at David Herbert Gallery; Meets Naum Gabo, Josef and Anni Albers; The Museum of Modern Art, New York, acquires sculpture Esfera for its Latin American Collection, The New York Public Library acquires Gego's engravings

Lygia Clark exhibits her series Bichos at the Galeria Bonino
Green Gallery opens in New York, New York; Directed by Dick Bellamy

Agnes Martin begins making earliest minimal-type paintings executed in graphite, watercolor, and washes of ink and acrylic

Frank Stella exhibits his "Aluminum Paintings," his first shaped canvases, at Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, New York; The shaped canvas becomes subject of an exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum, New York, five years later

Ludwig Wittgenstein's "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus" (1921) was translated into English, provinding what might have served as a Minimalist motto: "What can be said at all can be said clearly, and what we cannot talk about we must pass over in silence"

"Construction and Geometry in Painting from Malevich to Tomorrow" opens at Galerie Chalette, New York

Pierre Koenig designs and builds the Stahl House, Case Study House No. 22, in Los Angeles, CA

Lee Lozano moves to New York City

Jack Whitten moves to New York City

Glenn Ligon is born

Steve Karlik is born in Portland, Oregon

Dan Walsh is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Julian Dashper is born in Auckland, New Zealand
1961 New Tendency is founded in Zagreb, Croatia; First exhibition is mounted

Katharina Grosse is born in Freiburg, Germany

Gerold Miller is born in Altshausen, Germany

Etienne (Istvan) Béothy dies in Paris
Brazilian Neo-Concrete artists participate in a their final collective exhibition, after which the group is disbanded

Helio Oiticica's first environmental project Hunting Dogs

Gego's first one-person exhibition "Dibujos Recientes by Gego" at El Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela

Lygia Clark wins Premio de Escultura Nacional at the VL Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Prize represents the triumph of rational over informal art
Mark Rothko mounts solo exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York

In May, Burgoyne Diller mounts fiirst solo exhibition with Galerie Chalette; The rise of Minimalism gives legitimacy to Diller's past and current work

Robert Morris begins making minimal-type sculptures

Larry Bell begins making glass box sculptures

Walter de Maria begins making geometric sculptures

Kate Shepherd is born in New York, NY

John Zinsser is born in New York, NY

Carl Ostendarp is born in Amherst, Massachusetts
The "Sydney 9", a group of artists formed to promote abstract art, respond to the Antipodeans in exhibitions held in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia; Participating artists make a dramatic entrance, arriving at the opening via helicopter and brandishing abstract paintings

Stephen Bram is born in Melbourne, Australia

John Aslanidis is born in Sydney, Australia
1962 Ileana and Michael Sonnabend found Sonnabend Gallery in Paris, France

The book "Aesthetische Redundanz" by Kurd Alsleben is published

Callum Innes is born in Edinburgh, Scotland

Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart dies in Ulm, Germany

Natalia Goncharova dies on October 17 in Paris, France

Antoine Pevsner dies on April 12 in Paris, France

Malene Landgreen is born in Copenhagen, Denmark
Caroline de Lannoy is born in Brussels, Belgium

Gego lives in New York City
Camilla Gray publishes "The Russian Experiment in Art" which sparks a new interest in Constructivism

Burgoyne Diller begins making free-standing sculpture, which he dubbed "color structures"; The sculptures are vertical totems composed of wooden forms painted red, yellow, blue, black, gray, and white

"Geometric Abstraction in America" exhibition at Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (March 20 - May 13)

Jo Baer begins making minimal-type abstract paintings of white canvases with black and colored borders

Sol Lewitt begins making geometric, serial wall reliefs - neither paintings nor sculptures

Anne Truitt begins making tall standing geometric sculptures reminiscent of the fences, tombstones, and other architectural details of her childhood in Baltimore, Maryland

Donald Judd rejects the idea of his paintings and makes his first freestanding sculpture, "Untitled (DSS33)," a black-painted length of metal pipe with a 90-degree bend set between two cadmium-red-painted wooden planks at right angles to each other

Dan Flavin makes first electrical light works using both incandescent and fluorescent lights

Tony Smith makes his cube sculpture "Die", which is fabricated by professional steelworkers

Buckminster Fuller publishes "Untitled Epic Poem on the History of Industrialization"

Park Place gallery begins at 79 Park Place in lower Manhattan as an informal gathering place for artists.

Carolee Schneemann moves to New York City

Morris Louis dies in Washington, DC

Richard Pousette-Dart dies

Nicholas Bodde is born in New York, NY
1963 The exhibition "European Avantgarde (Europäische Avantgarde)" is mounted at Schwanenhalle, Römer, Frankfurt, Germany

Piero Manzoni dies

Rachel Whiteread is born

Zipora Fried is born
Taller Torres García, founded in Montevideo, Uruguay, by Joaquín Torres-García, is disbanded

Gego makes print works at the Pratt Graphic Art Institute, New York City and at the Tamarind Lithography Workshop in Los Angeles, California

Helio Oiticica first manipulative structure Bolide B1; Invents concept of Parangole; First three Parangoles consist of tents, banners and flags, Fourth Parangole is a cape to be worn on the body

Lygia Clark's one-person exhibition at Alexander Gallery, New York City

Iran do Espirito Santo is born in Macoco, Sao Paolo, Brazil

Xul Solar dies at the age of 75
Burgoyne Diller begins using formica (instead of paint) for his free-standing sculpture

Anne Truitt's solo exhibition at Andre Emmerich Gallery, New York, New York (January); Attributed as the first "minimalist" solo exhibition

The Jewish Museum in New York mounts the exhibition "Toward a New Abstraction" curated by Alan Solomon; The Los Angeles County Museum of Art mounts the exhibition"Post-Painterly Abstraction" curated by Clement Greenberg; Both shows erald the rise of post-painterly (post-gestural) abstraction and include stained color-field and hard-edge painting

Donald Judd realizes first sculpture with a three-dimensional spatial progression, "Untitled (DSS41)"; Judd's first solo exhibition at Green Gallery, New York (fall); Exhibits cadmium red light works built from industrial materials, such as Plexiglas, galvanized metal and plywood

Robert Morris' first solo exhibition at Green Gallery, New York

Frank Stella makes "Portrait Series," a group of paintings that stick out from the wall and feature various cut-out shapes; pioneers the use of shaped canvases, employing deep strachers and metallic paint to further assert the objectiness of his paintings

John McCracken begins making geometric paintings depicting patterns, sculptural forms, and emblems, such as arrows, crosses, and chevrons

Hans Haacke makes Condensation Cube, a miniature atmospheric environment encapsulated in a Plexiglas box (1963-1965)

Josef Albers publishes "Interaction of Color"

Anni Albers begins making prints, using lithography, screenprinting, etching, aquatint and inkless intaglio

Carolee Schneemann performs "Eye Body", painting her own body as an extension of her early "painting constructions"

Clement Meadmore moves from Australia to New York, NY

Richard Tuttle moves to New York City

Michael Zahn is born in Cleveland, Ohio
Christopher Dean is born on December 27 in Sydney, Australia

Simon Morris is born in Hamilton, New Zealand
1964 Exhibition "Nouvelle Tendance" at the Musee de Arts Decoratifs in Paris, France, which signaled the emergence of Op and Kinetic Art

Galerie Denise Rene in Paris, France, mounts exhibition "Hard Edge", includes Albers, Arp, Baertling, Herbin, Liberman, Lohse, Mortensen, Taeuber-Arp, and Vasarely; Catalogue texts by Lawrence Alloway, Michael Seuphor, and Teddy Brunius

Mikhail Larionov dies on May 10 in Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris, France

Anton Lorenz dies on June 22 in Greenwich, Connecticut, USA

Wera Meyer-Waldeck dies in April in Bonn, Germany

Chris Beekman dies on January 13 in Blaricum, The Netherlands

Liam Gillick is born in England

John Beech is born in Winchester, England

Nathalie Si Pie is born in Bordeaux, France
Lygia Clark creates Estructuras de Caixas de Fosforos; Exhibits at the Musee d'Arrais with Victor Vassarely, Jesus Rafael Soto and Carlos Cruz Diez; Exhibits at "Second Pilot Show of Kinetic Art" at Signals Gallery, London

Coinciding with traumatic economic and political changes throughout the region, artists in Latin America begin producing Conceptual Art; Possesses an ideological character and explores complex social and political issues (continues thru 1976)
"Black, White, and Gray" exhibition opens at the Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut; Curated by Samuel Flagstaff; Referred to as the first "minimal" museum exhibition

The term "Op Art is "used for the first time by a writer in an unsigned article in Time magazine (October 23, 1964)

Bruce Glaser publishes influential interview with Frank Stella and Donald Judd, in which they oppose the balanced compositions of "European geometric painters", stating that it is a visual expression of Cartesian, rationalistic philosphy

Dan Flavin exhibits his electrical light works, dubbed "icons," in the exhibition "Eleven Artists," which he curated at Kaymar Gallery, New York (March 5-29)

Donald Judd begins fabricating his work industrially with the help of his father and later with professional industrial fabricators (March)

"8 Young Artists" exhibition opens at the Hudson River Museum, Yonkers, New York (October); Probably the first exhibition devoted strictly to "minimal" art

Frank Stella exhibits his "Portrait Series" at Leo Castelli Gallery, New York

Dan Flavin's first exhibition, consisting solely of his light works, opens at Green Gallery, New York (November 18 - December 12)

Dan Flavin begins producing his series "Monuments to Tatlin"

Eva Hesse spends a year living in Germany, near Düsseldorf (1964-1965)

Lynda Benglis moves to New York City

Mel Bochner moves to New York City

Walter Biggs is born in Manhasset, New York
Marco Fusinato is born in Melbourne, Australia
1965 Victor Pasmore retrospective exhibition at the Tate Gallery, London, England; Represents Britain at the 8th Sao Paolo Biennale; Exhibition travels throughout South America

Artists Daniel Buren, Olivier Mosset, Michel Parmentier, Niele Toroni found group BMPT in Paris, France (mid-60s); BMPT advocated a radical form of abstraction that involved reductive formats followed with almost mechanical regularity

Richard Mortensen moves to Denmark

Victor Servranckx dies in Vilvoorde

Georges Vantongerloo dies on October 5 in Paris, France

Tim Ayres is born in Hastings, England
Bibi Calderaro is born in Michigan, United States; Raised in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Gego's sculpture Esfera is included in "The Responsive Eye" exhibition at The Museum of Modern Art, New York City

Lygia Clark's one-person exhibition at Signals Gallery, London
Donald Judd Produces first stacked box piece "Untitled (DSS65)"; Judd begins referring to these works as "specific objects," three-dimensional works that are neither paintings nor sculptures

John McCracken begins to produce first minimal-type sculpture; First solo exhibition takes place at Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los Angeles, California

"The Shaped Canvas" exhibition at The Guggenheim Museum, New York, New York; Curated by Lawrence Alloway

"Shape and Structure: 1965" exhibition opens at Tibor de Nagy Gallery, New York, New York (January)

The essay "Minimal Art," by Richard Wollheim published in Arts Magazine (January); First use of the label "minimal"

"The Responsive Eye" exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, organized by William C. Seitz (spring); Marks the emergence of "op art"

Carl Andre's first one person exhibition at Tibor de Nagy Gallery, New York, New York (April); First sculptures created for a specific location; Andre refers to this a "sculpture-as-place"

Sol Lewitt mounts first solo exhibition at John Daniels Gallery, New York; The exhibited works were not serial in nature, but did evidence the open cube form; Becomes increasingly frustrated with painted wood and soon turns to baked enamel on steel; By late 1965, begins painting his sculptures exclusively in white

The essay "Specific Objects," by Donald Judd published in Arts Yearbook

Barbara Rose's essay "A B C Art" published in Art in America (October-November); One of the first essays to define "minimalism"; Frames it as a response to the excesses of Abstract Expressionism

Sam Gilliam introduces the unsupported (unstretched) canvas, the first painter to do so

Shigeko Kubota performs "Vaginal Painting" in New York, with a brush attached to her crotch making marks as she squats

Park Place co-op gallery opens in Greenwich Village, NY; Five sculptors (Mark di Suvero, Peter Forakis, Robert Grosvenor, Anthony Magar, and Forrest Myers) and five painters (Dean Fleming, Tamara Melcher, David Novros, Edwin Ruda, and Leo Valledor) comprised the group, and Paula Cooper served as the gallery's director for most of its existence

Green Gallery in New York, New York closes

Guy Goodwin moves to New York City

Robert Swain moves to New York City

Dan Christensen moves to New York City

Kenneth Showell moves to New York City

Burgoyne Diller dies on January 30 in New York, NY

Greg Bogin is born in New York, NY

Michael Brennan is born in Pine Island, Florida
Central Street gallery is founded in Sydney, Australia; The driving force behind the gallery is artist Tony McGillick who recently returned to Sydney after living overseas; McGillick drew around him painters and sculptors ready to embrace alternatives to the provincialism they saw in earlier Australian art; The group was determined to thrust Australian art into the current of international modernism, to provide a space for artists to show new styles of work, and to offer the public new ways of seeing, of perceiving, art.

Gail Hastings is born in Perth, Australia
1966 Concrete Art dealer Heinz Teufel opens his first gallery in Koblenz, Germany

The book "Kinetic Art: Four Essays by Stephen Bann, Reg Gadney, Frank Popper and Philip Steadman" is published

The first issue of "Form" is published, a quarterly magazine of the arts edited by Philip Steadman, Mike Weaver, and Stephan Bann in Cambridge, England; A total of 10 issues are published through 196?

Olivier Mosset begins making circle paintings (through 1974)

Gino Severini dies on February 26 in Paris, France

Esther Hiepler is born in Stuttgart, Germany

Juan Matos Capote is born in Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

Rudolf Lutz dies on March 1 in Heilbronn

Mark Joyce is born in Dublin, Ireland
Lygia Clark participates in exhibition "Art of Latin America since Independence" at Yale University Art Gallery and at the University of Texas Art Museum; Participates in exhibition "In Motion" curated by Guy Brett, London

Karina Peisajovich is born in Buenos Aires
John McCracken reduces work into standing monochrome planks leaning against the wall

Robert Morris' essay "Notes on Sculpture" (Part I) published in Artforum (February); Discusses issues of "minimal" sculpture in terms of viewer participation, size, scale, and surface

Carl Andre's installation "Equivalents I-VIII" at Tibor de Nagy, New York, New York (March)

"Primary Structures: Younger American and British Sculpture" exhibition, The Jewish Museum, New York, New York (April 26 -); Organized by Kynaston McShine; Included the work of 42 American and British artists

The two-part essay "Notes on Sculpture" by Robert Morris published in the February and October issues of Artforum

"Art in Process: The Visual Development of a Structure" exhibition at Finch College Museum of Art, Contemporary Study Wing, New York; Curated by Elayne Varian

"Systemic Painting" exhibition at The Guggenheim Museum, New York, New York (September); Organized by Lawrence Alloway; Includes the works of 28 artists; Alloway defines "systemic" as art that moves away from expressionsim by using single fields of color, grids, and geometric shapes - the artist knows the final result of a work before its completion, working out all plans in preliminary sketches; Alloway's introductory essay in catalog discusses issues of anonymity and technique

Lucy Lippard curates the exhibition "Eccentric Abstraction" heralding the rise of post-minimal art; Its central artist was Eva Hesse

Peter Hutchinson's essay "Mannerism in the Abstract: published in Art and Artists (September); Describes "minimal" art as a new form of mannerism, i.e. highly abstract, decorative/ornamental, and remote from nature

Bruce Glaser's interview "Questions to Stella and Judd" reprinted in Art News, edited by Lucy Lippard (September); The first extensive published statements by Stella and Judd

Brian O'Doherty's essay "Minus Plato" published in Art and Artists magazine (September); Discusses conceptualism in art

David Bourdon's essay "The Razed Sites of Carl Andre" published in Artforum (October); Discusses Andre's non-use of space

E.C. Goossen writes essay "Two Exhibitions" about exhibitions "8 Young Artists" (Hudson River Museum, 1964) and "Distillation" (Stable Gallery and Tibor de Nagy Gallery, Sept. 1966); Discusses the characteristics and meanings of "minimal" art

Robert Morris' essay "Notes on Sculpture" (Part II) published in Artforum (October); Discusses issues of "minimal" sculpture in terms of viewer participation, size, scale, and surface

David Lee's essay "A Systematic Revery from Abstraction to Now" published in a pamphlet of essays by Guggenheim Museum, New York (fall); Discusses "minimal" art from the point of view of an artist

Mel Bochner begins making work based on the Fibonacci Sequence, a mathematical progress (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, etc.)

Mel Bochner's installation "Working Drawings and Other Visible Things on Paper Not Necessarily Meant to Be Viewed as Art" at School of Visual Arts, New York, NY (December); Bochner photocopied 100 pages of studio notes, working drawings and diagrams by others artists including Eva Hesse, Dan Flavin, Sol Lewitt, Donald Judd, pages from Scientific American, notations from serial music compositions, mathematical calculations, and other information; He organized the information into four binders which he placed on pedestals in the gallery

Dan Graham's "Homes for America" project published in Arts magazine (Dec.1966 - Jan. 1967); Illustrates "minimal" surfaces and structures found in suburbia

Michael Benedikt's essay "Sculpture as Architecture: New York Letter, 1966-67" published in Art International; Discusses the architectural aspects of "minimalist" sculpture

Tody Mussman's two-part essay "Literalness and the Infinite" published; Discusses the works of Robert Rauschenberg and Robert Smithson

Robert Smithson begins making his "non-site" sculpture

Brice Marden mounts his first solo exhibition at Bykert Gallery, New York (fall); Exhibits all monochrome rectangles

Barnett Newman mounts his "Stations of the Cross" at the Guggenheim Museum in New York

Vija Celmins mounts first solo exhibition at David Stuart Galleries, Los Angeles, California

Whitney Museum of American Art opens permanent home on Madison Avenue, New York, New York; Building is designed by architect Marcel Breuer

The "Case Study House" program in Los Angeles comes to end

Paul Feeley dies in New York, NY

Eve Peri dies
Sarah Keighery is born on November 20 in Sydney, Australia
1967 The "Nuove Techniche D'Immagine" exhibition is mounted at Sesta Biennale D'Art Repubblica Di S. Marino, Italy

The book "Naissance de l'Art Cinetique" by Frank Popper is published

Harold Cousins moves from Paris, France to Brussels, Belgium, where he works for the remainder of his life

Jean Deyrolle dies in Toulon, France

Johannes Itten dies on May 25 in Zurich, Switzerland

Laszló Peri dies in London, England

Tobias Abel is born in Gottingen, Germany

Jens Wolf is born in Heilbronn, Germany

Tomma Abts is born in Kiel, Germany

Peter K. Koch is born in Cologne, Germany
Exhibition "Nova Objectividade Brasileira" at Museu de Arte Moderna (MAM), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Samuel Wagstaff, Jr.'s essay "Talking with Tony Smith" completed; Documents conversations between Wagstaff and Smith

John Perreault's essay "Minimal Abstracts" published in The Village Voice (January 12, 1967); Discusses "minimalism's" use of rational, conceptual, and holistic methods; Reprinted in Arts Magazine and Art International (March)

Harold Rosenberg's essay "Defining Art" published in The New Yorker (February 25); Discuses "minimal" art's affirmation of the independent art object, dedicated to art and nothing else

Carl Andre begins producing large-scale floor sculptures; The first exhibition of these works is his installation "Eight Cuts" at Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles, California

Jackson Pollock's retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art, New York   

Lucy Lippard's essay "Eros Presumptive" published in The Hudson Review (spring); Discusses "minimal" art's figurative and erotic references

"Scale as Content" exhibition at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

Mel Bochner's essay "Serial Art, Systems, Solipsism" published in Arts Magazine (summer); Discusses seriality as an artistic process

"Light, Motion, Space" exhibition at Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN; Willoughby Sharp's essay "Luminism and Kineticism" included in exhibition catalogue discusses use of light and movement in art

Elayne Varian's essay "Schemata 7" published; Discusses "minimal" sculpture's use of scale and space

"American Sculpture of the Sixties" exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, California; Clement Greenberg introductory essay in catalogue criticizes "minimalism's" tendency to make three-dimensional objects referencing non-art objects; Irving Sandler's essay "Gesture and Non-Gesture in Recent Sculpture" published in the exhibition catalogue; Discusses "minimal" sculpture as existing in its own space

"Art in Series" exhibition at Finch College Museum of Art, Contemporary Study Wing, New York; Curated by Elayne Varian and Mel Bochner 

Michael Fried's essay "Art and Objecthood" published in Artforum (June); Discusses "minimal" art in terms of its theatricality, i.e. the audience and the art object and their relationship in time

Nicolas Calas' essay "Subject Matter in the Work of Barnett Newman" published in Arts Magazine (November); Discusses the presence of subject matter of "minimal" art

Ad Reinhardt's retrospective opens at the Jewish Museum, New York, New York; He dies on August 30

Tony Smith is featured on the cover of Time magazine (October 13)

Corcoran Gallery of Art's exhibition "Scale as Content" (November 1-30); First museum to commission artists to create works specifically for its space (Ronald Bladen, Tony Smith, and Barnett Newman)

The world's fair, Expo '67, opens in Montreal, Canada; Features R. Buckminster Fuller's 250 x 200 foot geodesic dome, equipped with 261 electric motors operating 4,700 metallic fabric shades that regulate temperature and change the dome's color from silver to rainbow hues

Agnes Martin's building is slated for destruction and makes her last painting in New York, "Tundra"; She leaves New York City and wanders the country for a year and half in a pickup and camper until settling in New Mexico; Martin stops painting for 7 years

Allen Leepa wrote essay "Minimal Art and Primary Meanings"; Discusses "minimal" art in phenomenological terms, i.e. through the nature of experience and its perception

Michael Heizer creates one of his first earthworks "North, East, South, West" in the Sierra Nevada Mountains

Kenneth Noland does his earliest striped paintings

Robert Ryman mounts his first solo exhibition at Paul Bianchini Gallery, New York; He shows a series of paintings consisting of white enamel on cold-rolled steel; None of the works sold

Richard Diebenkorn begins painting his "Ocean Park" series

George Rickey writes "Constructivism: Origins and Evolution", the first comprehensive survey of Constructivism, from its origins in Europe to its latter manifestations in the United States, with an analysis of its continued influence up to the present day

Dan Christensen mounts first solo exhibition in NYC at Noah Goldowsky Gallery

Jo Bear writes a letter to ArtForum magazine defending painting against negative reviews of the Guggenheim Museum's "Systemic Painting" exhibition by Donald Judd and Michael Fried

Roy Colmer moves to New York City

Elizabeth Murray moves to New York City

Cesar Paternosto moves to New York City

Howardena Pindell moves to New York City

Joan Snyder moves to New York City

Lawrence Stafford moves to New York City

Alan Shields moves to New York City

Franz Erhard Walther moves to New York City in May

Ludwig Hilberseimer dies on May 6 in Chicago, Illinois

Hilla von Rebay dies

Sarah Morris is born
1968 Max Bill publishes "Art as Non-Changeable Fact" in "Data—Directions in Art, Theory, and Aesthetics", published under the direction of Anthony Hill, Faber and Faber, London; In his essay, Bill discusses the notion of structure, which is fundamental to his art

The book "Directions in Art, Theory and Aesthetics" by Anthony Hill, editor, is published

Marcel Duchamp dies on October 2 in Neuilly-sur-Seine

Adolf Richard Fleischmann dies in Stuttgart, Germany

Franz Schuster dies on January 26 in Vienna, Austria

Wassily Ermilow dies in Charkov, Russia

Roy de Maistre dies in London, England

Ernst Wilhelm Nay dies in Cologne, Germany

Rupert Eder is born in Bad Aibling, Germany
Guy Brett publishes book Kinetic Art Marcia Tucker starts working at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

Gregory Battcock's "Minimal Art: A Critical Anthology," published University of California Press

Donald Judd's retrospective exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York (February)

"Minimal Art" exhibition at the Gemeentemuseum, The Hague (March); Curated by Enno Develing

"Art of the Real: USA 1948-1968" exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York (July 3- September 8); Curated by Eugene C. Goossen

"L'Art du Réel: USA 1948-1968" exhibition at the Grand Palais, Paris, France (November)

Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, NY, mounts the exhibition "Plus by Minus: Today's Half Century" curated by Douglas MacAgy; This was the first reappraisal of the importance and history of the geometric tradition in western art to be presented in the United States since World War II; The curator of the McCrory Corporation collection, Celia Ascher, is first introduced to constructive art by the exhibition; She later forms the corporation's collection of geometric abstraction

Robert Morris curates the exhibition "9" at Leo Castelli Gallery, a landmark moment in anti-form art

Robert Morris' essay "Anti Form" published in Artforum; Robert Morris' essay "Notes on Sculpture, Part IV" published

Robert Pincus-Witten coins the term "Post-Minimalism"

Donald Judd purchases loft building on the corner of Spring and Mercer Streets in SoHo neighborhood of Manhattan, New York

Walter de Maria creates first “earth room” sculpture in Munich, Germany

Paula Cooper Gallery opens in New York City, the first gallery in the city's SoHo neighborhood (96 Prince Street, 3rd Floor); The first exhibition is to benefit the "Student Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam", which includes work by Carl Andre, Dan Flavin, Donald Judd, Robert Mangold, and Robert Ryman, as well as Sol Lewitt's first wall drawing

Mary Heilman moves to New York City

Al Loving moves to New York City

Lynne Harlow is born in Attleboro, Massachusetts
Clement Greenberg visits Australia for the first time

The exhibition "The Field" opens at the National Gallery of Victoria launching color field abstraction in Australia

Paul Bai is born in Tianjin, China
1969 The exhibition "Konstruktive Kunst: Elemente + Prinzipien" is mounted at Biennale, Kunsthalle, Nürnberg with a parallel exhibition at the Kunstbibliothek, Berlin, Germany

"Amerikanische Raumkunst" exhibition at the Zürich Kunsthaus, Switzerland (January)

"Minimal Art" exhibition at the Stadtisches Kunsthalle and Kunstverein, Düsseldorf, Germany (spring)

"Minimal Art" exhibition at the Akademie der Künste, Berlin, Germany (spring)

"Art of the Real: USA 1948-1968" exhibition at the Tate Gallery, London, England

"When Attitude Becomes Form: Live in Your Head" exhibition at the Kunsthall, Bern, organized by Harald Szeemann, featuring nearly 70 artists working in Minimalism, Conceptualism, Arte Povera, process art, land art, installation and information art; travels later in the year to the Londaon Institute of Contemporary Art

Mary Martin dies in London, England
Cildo Meireles makes Southern Cross, a tiny wooden cube made of half pine and half oak (1969-1970)

Rossana Martínez is born in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

Gego begins to work with stainless-steel modular columns; Installs environmental work Reticularea at El Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela; Reticularea is included in exhibition "Latin America: New Painting and Sculpture" at the Center for Inter-American Relations, New York City

Helio Oiticica's one-person exhibition at White Chapel Gallery, London

Lygia Clark participates in the "First International Tactile Sculpture Symposium" with Helio Oiticica and Mathias Goeritz in California
Robert Morris' retrospective at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

Fred Sandback mounts first New York solo show at Virginia Dwan Gallery

Marcia Tucker and James Monte organize the exhibition "Anti-Illusion: Procedures / Materials" at the Whitney Museum of American Art

Al Loving's solo exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

Cesar Paternosto begins to paint only on the sides of his canvases

William T. Williams exhibits his hard-edge geometic paintings at the Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, NY

David Diao and Peter Young exhibition at Leo Castelli Gallery, New York

The Black Emergency Cultural Coalition is established in protest of a planned exhibition "Harlem on My Mind" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art; African-American artists and cultural leaders were not consulted on the exhibition

Yayoi Kusama stages "Grand Orgy to Awaken the Dead" in the fountain of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Sculpture Garden; Features eight nude performers

Lynda Benglis, Gary Dubosen and Alan Shields exhibition at Paula Cooper Gallery, New York

Harmony Hammond moves to New York City

Walter Gropius dies on July 5 in Boston, Massachusetts

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe dies on August 17 in Chicago, Illinois