MINUS SPACE’s chronology includes major events, exhibitions, and writings regarding the development of reductive art on the international level. 

To contribute information, please email MINUS SPACE.

 

year europe south america north america australia / asia / africa
         
1920 Inkhuk (Institut Khudozhestvennoy Kultury or "Institute of Artistic Culture") is founded on May 1920 in Moscow, Russia (1920-26); Inkhuk was a dominant force in the development of Soviet art, architecture and design in the 1920s; Also had affiliations in St. Petersburg and Vitebsk; It attracted many members of the avant-garde, especially Lyubov Popova and Alexander Rodchenko; Its key administrative positions were occupied by Wassily Kandinsky (Moscow), Vladimir Tatlin (St. Petersburg), and Kazimir Malevich (Vitebsk); At one time Inkhuk maintained contact with Berlin (through El Lissitzky), the Netherlands, Hungary and Japan, although it never really had the chance to develop these international connections

Josef Albers attends Bauhaus, experiments with colored glass assemblage

Oscar Schlemmer enters the Bauhaus (1920-29)

Kazimir Malevich begins producing Suprematist architectural models

Wladyslaw Strzemenski is associated with Unovis (1920-22)

Brothers Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevsner publish "Manifeste réaliste"

Laszló Moholy-Nagy moves to Berlin

Laszló Peri moves to Berlin (1920-21)

Nadir Afonso is born in Chaves, Portugal

Zdenek Sykora is born in Louny, Czech Republic
Lygia Clark is born on October 23 in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

Aluisio Carvao is born in Belem do Pará, Brazil
Marcel Duchamp and Katherine Dreier found the Société Anonyme

Ashille Gorky moves to the United States

Man Ray leaves to study in Paris, Franice

Gene Davis is born

Marcia Hafif is born in Pamona, California
 
         
1921 Alexander Rodchenko paints his monochrome triptych "Pure Colours: Red, Yellow, Blue"; He describes it as "the last painting"; Rodchenko renounces painting and takes up design and photography

"5 x 5 = 25" Exhibition in Russia

Vladimir Tatlin makes his "Monument to the Third International"

Theo van Doesburg moves to Berlin to the Bauhaus in Wiemar

Georges Vantongerloo leaves the De Stijl group

Alejandro Otero is born in El Manteco, Venezuela

Jean Dewasne is born in Hellemmes-lès-Lille, France

Gunnar S. Gundersen is born in Forde, Norway

Nausica Pastra is born in Kalamata, Greece
  A. E. Gallatin visits the landmark exhibition of Post-Impressionist painting held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art; He is also involved for a brief time in the Société Anonyme, and consults with Alfred Steiglitz of Gallery 291; These expericnes spark his conversion to modernist abstraction

Anne Truitt is born in Baltimore, Maryland

Dorothea Rockburne is born
 
         
1922 Wassily Kandinsky begins teaching at the Bauhaus, Weimar

Artists from the Dutch De Stijl and Russian Constructivism movements meet at a congress in Dusseldorf, Germany, to form an "International of progressive artists"; From this meeting forward there were lively exchanges through magazines, travel, and exhibitions and, as a result, artists or groups practicing constructive art were soon to be found in almost all European countries

Sandor (Alexandre) Bortnyk moves to Weimar in proximity to the Bauhaus (1922-25)

Anni Albers studies at the Bauhaus, Wiemar (1922-25)

Naum Gabo leaves the Soviet Union and moves to Berlin (1922-32)

Johannes Itten resigns teaching at the Bauhaus

El Lissitzky moves to Berlin

Iwan Kliun, Pavel Mansouroff, and Nikolaj Michajlovich Suetin join Inkhuk, the Russian version of the Bauhaus, in Leningrad, Russia

Wladyslaw Strzemenski moves to Warsaw, Poland

Pol Bury is born in Haine-Sainte-Pierre, Belgium

Horia Damian is born in Bucharest, Romania

Erwin Heerich is born in Kassel, Germany

Norbert Kricke is born in Dusseldorf, Germany
Judith Lauand is born in Pontal, Brazil

Tomás Maldonado is born in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Rubem Valentim is born in Salvador, Brazil
Richard Diebenkorn is born in Portland, Oregon  
         
1923 Walter Gropius invites Josef Albers and Laszló Moholy-Nagy to teach at Bauhaus

"Der Ring" is established, an organization of architects set up in Berlin to promote the cause of Modernism (1923-33); It continued until 1933, when growing opposition from the Nazis forced it to disband; It began with a group calling itself the "Zehnerring (Ring of Ten)", which met at the office shared by Mies van der Rohe and Hugo Häring; The name was chosen to symbolize the fact that the "Zehnerring" was a democratic union of equals; Apart from Mies van der Rohe and Häring, it included Otto Bartning, Peter Behrens, Erich Mendelsohn, Hans Poelzig, Walter Schilbach, Bruno Taut and Max Taut; "Zehnerring’s" stated purpose was "to struggle against impractical and bureaucratic resistance for the establishment of a new concept of building"

Kazimir Malevich begins producing Suprematist clothing and porcelain designs

Wladyslaw Strzeminski organizes the "Wystawa Nowej Sztuki (Exhibition of new art)" in Wilno (now Vilnius, Lithuania), which acted as a manifesto of Polish Constructivism; He exhibited Suprematist architectural projects, Cubist paintings and Synthetic Compositions, as well as Suprematist abstract works constructed from simple forms in contrasting colours

Kurt Schwitters' "Merz" (through 1932)

Leo Erb is born in St. Ingbert, Germany

Günter Fruhtrunk is born in Munich, Germany

Wolfgang Ludwig is born in Mielesdorf, Germany

Lars Gunnar Nordström is born in Helsinki, Finland

Lothar Quinte is born in Neisse, Poland
Carlos Cruz-Diez is born in Caracas, Venezuela

Jesús Rafael Soto is born on June 5 in Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela

Alfredo Hlito is born in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Juan Melé is born in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Ivan Serpa is born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Alexander Archipenko moves to the United States

Ellsworth Kelly is born in Newburgh, New York

Richard Artschwager is born in Washington, DC

Ilya Bolotowsky moves to the United States
 
         
1924 The first Polish Constructivist group, Blok Group, was formed in Warsaw with the help of Wladyslaw Strzeminski’s; He took part in all its exhibitions and published articles in the periodical Blok; Henri Berlewi helped found the group as well

Alexander Liberman moves to France (1924-41)

Jurii Pawlowitsch Annenkov moves to Paris

Iwan Puni (Jean Pougny) moves to Paris and assumes the new name Jean Pougny

Gyula Kosice is born in Kosice, Hungary

Julije Knifer is born in Osijek, Croatia

Vera Molnar is born in Budapest, Hungary

Ivan Picelj is born in Okucani, Croatia

Martin Barré is born in Nantes

Ljubov Sergejevna Popowa dies in Moscow, Russia
Franz Weissmann emigrates to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Xul Solar moves from Europe back to Argentina
Kenneth Noland is born in Asheville, North Carolina  
         
1925 Bauhaus moves to Dessau, Germany (1925-32)

Anni Albers studies at the Bauhaus, Dessau (1925-29); Marries Josef Albers

El Lissitzky installs his "Abstrakte Kabinett" in the Landesmuseum in Hanover, Germany, as a total work of Constructivist art

Piet Mondrian and Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart participates in De Stijl group

Alexandra Exter moves to Paris, France

Waldemar Cordeiro is born in Rome, Italy

Joost Baljeu is born in Middelburg, The Netherlands

Heinz Gappmayr is born in Innsbruck, Austria

Alf Lechner is born in Munich, Germany

Manfred Luther is born in Dresden, Germany
Almir da Silva Mavignier is born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Alfred Stieglitz opens his Intimate Gallery (1925-1929)

Carl Holty leaves to study in Munich, Germany

The Societe Anonyme publishes Louis Lozowick's book on contemporary Russian Art, including Constructivism and Supremetism

Robert Rauschenberg is born

Paul Kelpe moves from Germany to the United States
Milan Mrkusich is born in Dargaville, New Zealand
         
1926 "Inkhuk (Institut Khudozhestvennoy Kultury or Institute of Artistic Culture)" in Moscow, Russia closes

Wassily Kandinsky publishes "Point and Line to Plane"

The periodical "Bauhaus: Zeitschrift für Gestalttung" is published at the Bauhaus, Dessau (through 1929)

The Hungarian journal "MA" stops being published

Johannes Itten moves to Berlin (1926-34)

Jørn Larsen is born in Naestved, Denmark

François Morellet is born in Cholet, France

Georg Karl Pfahler is born in Emetzheim, Germany

Gerhard Wittner is born in Heidelberg, Germany
Willys de Castro is born in Uberlandia, Brazil

Ennio Iommi is born in Rosario, Argentina
Encyclopedia Britannica states "In the United States cubism, futurism and vorticism have all had their exponents among younger painters, but have inspired no work of permanent interest or value"

At the suggestion of Piet Mondrian, the Société Anonyme's "International Exhibition of Modern Art" is mounted at the Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY; The group worked to connect to the activities of the Dutch De Stij, Dessau Bauhaus, and the Russian Constructivists

Alexander Calder leaves to study in Paris, France

David Smith moves to New York
"A Group of Modern Painters", an exhibition at the Grosvenor Galleries in Sydney, Australia, features the work of a number of notable modernist artists, including George Lambert, Thea Proctor, and Roy de Maistre
         
1927 Laszló Moholy-Nagy leaves his teaching position at the Bauhaus

Max Bill studies at the Bauhaus in Dessau, Germany (1927-29)

Georges Vantongerloo moves to Paris, France

Theo van Doesburg, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, and Jean Arp design the interior of cafe L'Aubette in Strasbourg, a total work of Constructivist art

Camille Graeser collaborates with Mies van der Rohe

Karl-Heinz Adler is born in Remtengrün, Germany

Piero Dorazio is born in Rome, Italy

Hans Geipel is born in Meiningen, Germany

Heijo Hangen is born in Bad Kreuznach, Germany

Jan Kubícek is born in Kolín, Czech Republic

Ludwig Wilding is born in Grünstadt, Germany
Omar Carreño is born in Porlamar, Venezuela In the spring, A. E. Gallatin organizes a show of European modern art works at the Library of the School of Commerce at New York University; On December 13 he founds the first museum of modern art in the United States, "The Gallery of Living Art", at New York University, New York City; Gallatin brought constructive works, particularly by Mondrian, to the United States, which Gallatin termed "non-representational"

Hilla von Rebay arrives in New York, NY

Jerry Lomax is born on April 10
 
         
1928 Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer leave Bauhaus; The Swiss architect Hannes Meyer is appointed director

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe designs the Barcelona Pavilion in Barcelon, Spain

Le Corbusier designs Villa Savoye in Poissy, France

Sandor (Alexandre) Bortnyk founds Mühely, the "Bauhaus of Budapest", which continues until 1938

Walter Dexel becomes a member of "Ring neuer Werbegestalter", founded by Kurt Schwitters

Yaacov Agam is born in Rishon le Zion (Israel)

Julian Stanczak is born in Borownica, Poland

Hermann Bartels is born in Riesenburg, Poland

Wilhelm Müller is born in Harzgerode, Germany

Nelly Rudin is born in Basel, Switzerland

Hans Steinbrenner is born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Gyula Kosice moves with his family to Argentina

Julio Le Parc is born in Mendoza, Argentina
Alfred Barr, Director of the fledgling Museum of Modern Art, New York, travels to Russia and purchases work by Malevich, Rodchenko, and Lissitzky

Stuart Davis leaves to study in Europe; He takes with him a group of his "egg beater" pictures

Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney transforms her Whitney Studio Club to the Whitney Studio Galleries

Vaclav Vytlacil delivers a series of lectures on modern art at the Art Students League (thru 1929)

Donald Judd is born in on June 3 in Excelsior Springs, Missouri

Sol Lewitt is born on September 9 in Hartford, Connecticut

Al Held is born in Brooklyn, New York

Ward Jackson (William Ward Jackson) is born on September 10 in Petersburg, Virginia

Robert Irwin is born in Long Beach, California
 
         
1929 The group "Cercle et Carré" is formed by Michel Seuphor to promote and exhibit abstract art

Pavel Mansouroff mores to Paris, France

Andreu Alfaro is born in Valencia, Spain

Roger Humbert is born in Basel, Switzerland

Rudolf Valenta is born in Prague, Czech Republic

Adolf Meyer dies on July 24 in Baltrum, East Friesian Islands

Ilya Grigoreich Chaschnik dies in Leningrad

Jean Dewasne is born in Lille, France

Jean-Michel Gasquet is born in Nimes, France
Lygia Pape is born in Nova Friburgo, Brazil Museum of Modern Art founded in New York, New York; Its founding director is Alfred H. Barr, Jr.

Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney offers her entire collection of nearly 500 pieces of American art to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York along with an offer to build a new wing; Her offer is rejected

Alfred Stieglitz closes his Intimate Gallery (1925-1929)

Burgoyne Diller moves to New York City in January and enrolls at the Art Students League

Jan Matulka begins teaching at the Art Students League; Burgoyne Diller, David Smith, Dorothy Dehner, George McNeil, Edgar Levy, and Irene Rice Pereira study with Matulka

Jo Baer is born in Seattle, Washington

Robert Slutzky is born on November 27 in Brooklyn, NY

Beauford Delaney moves to New York City
The first major exhibition of Aboriginal art is held in Melbourne, Australia

Clement Meadmore is born on February 9 in Melbourne, Australia

Yayoi Kusama is born in Japan

 

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